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2018/10/05 第235期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份

紐時周報精選 Trailing Carbon Footprints Across Borders 減碳大進展? 碳足跡 外包到海外
Cow Bone Tossing. Horseback Wrestling.Let the Games Begin! 吉爾吉斯欲藉遊牧民族運動會 喚回歷史身分認同


Trailing Carbon Footprints Across Borders 減碳大進展? 碳足跡 外包到海外
作者/Brad Plumer

Over the past decade, both the United States and Europe have made major strides in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions at home. That trend is often held up as a sign of progress in the fight against climate change.


But those efforts look a lot less impressive once you take trade into account. Many wealthy countries have effectively “outsourced” a big chunk of their carbon pollution overseas, by importing more steel, cement and other goods from factories in China and other places, rather than producing it domestically.


Britain, for instance, slashed emissions within its own borders by one-third between 1990 and 2015. But it has done so as energy-intensive industries have migrated abroad. If you included all the global emissions produced in the course of making things like the imported steel used in London’s skyscrapers and cars, then Britain’s total carbon footprint has actually increased slightly over that time.


“It’s a huge problem,” said Ali Hasanbeigi, a research scientist and chief executive of Global Efficiency Intelligence, an energy and environmental consulting firm. “If a country is meeting its climate goals by outsourcing emissions elsewhere, then we’re not making as much progress as we thought.”


Hasanbeigi is an author of a new report on the global carbon trade, which estimates that 25 percent of the world’s total emissions are being outsourced in this manner. The report, written with the consulting firm KGM & Associates and ClimateWorks, calls this a “carbon loophole,” since countries rarely scrutinize the carbon footprint of the goods they import.

哈禮傑是一份全球碳交易新報告的作者之一,報告估計,世界碳排放總量的25%以這種方式外包。這份與顧問公司KGM & Associates和非政府組織「氣候工作基金會」合著的報告,把這一點稱為「碳漏洞」,因為各國很少仔細檢視進口商品的碳足跡。

That may be changing. Last fall, California’s lawmakers took an early stab at confronting the issue by setting new low-carbon standards on the steel the state buys for its infrastructure projects. But dealing with imported emissions remains a thorny problem.


Some environmentalists see it as the next frontier of climate policy.


The new report, which analyzes global trade from 15,000 different sectors — from toys and office equipment to glass and aluminum — builds on previous academic research to provide one of the most detailed pictures yet of the global carbon trade.


Not surprisingly, China, which has become the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide, remains the world’s factory. About 13 percent of China’s emissions in 2015 came from making stuff for other countries. In India, another fast-growing emitter, the figure is 20 percent.


The United States, for its part, remains the world’s leading importer of what the researchers call “embodied carbon.”




實體碳排放(embodied carbon)特指「物質」的碳足跡,如建造一棟大樓、製造一輛車或一部筆記型電腦的碳足跡,而「碳足跡」一詞含意較寬泛,可以指為大樓提供電力、開車、操作筆電的碳足跡。


Cow Bone Tossing. Horseback Wrestling.Let the Games Begin! 吉爾吉斯欲藉遊牧民族運動會 喚回歷史身分認同
作者/Neil MacFarquhar

The American team that played a brutal version of polo at the World Nomad Games does not expect the sport to get picked up by the Olympics any time soon.


Why not?


“We use a dead goat,” said Scott A. Zimmerman, a team co-captain.


The game of kok-boru, with its headless goat carcass, was the main attraction at the weeklong international sports competition held this month in Cholpon-Ata, Kyrgyzstan.


Other highlights included bone tossing, hunting with eagles and 17 types of wrestling, including bare-chested horseback wrestling, where the weaker competitor often clings desperately to the animal’s head as spectators roar in anticipation of him hitting the dirt.


The organizers hope to resurrect nomadic traditions, especially those of Central Asia, whose cultures were pushed toward extinction by decades of Soviet collectivization and then globalization.


While many top-flight athletes competed, qualifying for an event was easy: Basically anybody who signed up online could play. The bulk of the Czech Republic delegation, for example, was a group of male friends who fished around for an easy sport.


They discovered ordo, or bone tossing, which involves eight players using a chunk of cow bone to dislodge 2-inch pieces of sheep bone from a large dirt circle. (It’s a lot harder than it sounds.) They could not, however, find the right bone bits in the Czech Republic with which to practice.


So how did they learn to play? They just thought about it, mostly, admitted the Czechs, who went home without any medals.

那麼他們是如何學會玩的呢? 未抱回任何獎牌的這些捷克人承認,他們只能全憑想像。

The outdoor events took place in two stunning venues — a hippodrome built for the Games on a high-altitude saline lake surrounded by the jagged peaks of the Tian Shan mountain range, and the vast meadows of a sweeping mountain gorge, where some 1,000 yurts were erected.


With archers clopping by on horses, and the smoky aroma of grilling meat, the meadow site evoked a nomadic encampment from a bygone era.


After 72 years spent under Communist domination — and more than two decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union — Kyrgyzstan and its neighbors are still trying to define themselves.


“We want to revive our historical identity,” said Kanat Amankulov, Kyrgyzstan’s minister for youth and sports.


The Games also seek to create a kind of Brand Kyrgyzstan, attracting tourists to an impoverished, landlocked, predominantly Muslim nation of about 6 million people.


The emphasis on nomadic traditions casts Kyrgyzstan as part of a grander Turkic civilization, and perhaps equally important, helps counter the growing strength here of the intolerant Wahhabi strain of Islam imported by clerics educated in Saudi Arabia.




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