聯合電子報

網路時代,部落格是最佳發聲的平台。從【部落客名嘴】電子報非大眾媒體的角度,看個人媒體如何發揮影響力! 【bobo小天才.輕鬆玩教養】針對家長頭痛的學齡前教養問題開闢解決方案,讓家長輕鬆地教導孩子。

無法正常瀏覽圖片,請按這裡看說明   無法正常瀏覽內容,請按這裡線上閱讀
新聞  健康  財經  追星  NBA台灣  udn部落格  udnTV  讀書吧  

讀紐時學英文
2018/10/05 第235期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Trailing Carbon Footprints Across Borders 減碳大進展? 碳足跡 外包到海外
Cow Bone Tossing. Horseback Wrestling.Let the Games Begin! 吉爾吉斯欲藉遊牧民族運動會 喚回歷史身分認同

紐時周報精選
 

Trailing Carbon Footprints Across Borders 減碳大進展? 碳足跡 外包到海外
作者/Brad Plumer
譯/李京倫

Over the past decade, both the United States and Europe have made major strides in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions at home. That trend is often held up as a sign of progress in the fight against climate change.

在過去十年中,美國和歐洲在減少各自的溫室氣體排放方面取得了重大進展。這種趨勢經常被高舉為對抗氣候變遷有成的一個標誌。

But those efforts look a lot less impressive once you take trade into account. Many wealthy countries have effectively “outsourced” a big chunk of their carbon pollution overseas, by importing more steel, cement and other goods from factories in China and other places, rather than producing it domestically.

但是,一旦把碳交易納入考量,這些努力可就大為失色了。許多富裕國家透過從中國大陸和其他地方的工廠進口更多的鋼鐵、水泥等商品,而不在國內生產,實質上將大部分碳汙染「外包」到海外。

Britain, for instance, slashed emissions within its own borders by one-third between 1990 and 2015. But it has done so as energy-intensive industries have migrated abroad. If you included all the global emissions produced in the course of making things like the imported steel used in London’s skyscrapers and cars, then Britain’s total carbon footprint has actually increased slightly over that time.

例如,英國1990年至2015年間將國內碳排放量削減了三分之一,但英國在做到這點的同時,能源密集型產業也向海外遷移。若把倫敦摩天樓和汽車所用進口鋼材等物料製造過程產生的全球所有碳排放量計入,英國那段時間總體碳足跡實際上還略有增加。

“It’s a huge problem,” said Ali Hasanbeigi, a research scientist and chief executive of Global Efficiency Intelligence, an energy and environmental consulting firm. “If a country is meeting its climate goals by outsourcing emissions elsewhere, then we’re not making as much progress as we thought.”

能源暨環境顧問公司「全球效率智識」負責人、研究科學家哈禮傑說:「這是一個巨大的問題。如果一個國家透過將碳排放外包到其他地方來達成氣候目標,我們取得的進展就沒有自以為的多。」

Hasanbeigi is an author of a new report on the global carbon trade, which estimates that 25 percent of the world’s total emissions are being outsourced in this manner. The report, written with the consulting firm KGM & Associates and ClimateWorks, calls this a “carbon loophole,” since countries rarely scrutinize the carbon footprint of the goods they import.

哈禮傑是一份全球碳交易新報告的作者之一,報告估計,世界碳排放總量的25%以這種方式外包。這份與顧問公司KGM & Associates和非政府組織「氣候工作基金會」合著的報告,把這一點稱為「碳漏洞」,因為各國很少仔細檢視進口商品的碳足跡。

That may be changing. Last fall, California’s lawmakers took an early stab at confronting the issue by setting new low-carbon standards on the steel the state buys for its infrastructure projects. But dealing with imported emissions remains a thorny problem.

這種情況可能正在改變。去年秋天,美國加州的立法當局著手及早因應這個問題,為加州基礎設施工程採購的鋼材設定新的低碳標準。但處理進口商品排放量仍然棘手。

Some environmentalists see it as the next frontier of climate policy.

一些環保人士認為,處理進口排放是氣候政策下一個有待討論的領域。

The new report, which analyzes global trade from 15,000 different sectors — from toys and office equipment to glass and aluminum — builds on previous academic research to provide one of the most detailed pictures yet of the global carbon trade.

這份新報告分析了全球貿易1萬5000個不同領域,從玩具、辦公設備、玻璃到鋁,以先前的學術研究為基礎,極其詳盡地描繪了全球碳交易。

Not surprisingly, China, which has become the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide, remains the world’s factory. About 13 percent of China’s emissions in 2015 came from making stuff for other countries. In India, another fast-growing emitter, the figure is 20 percent.

毫不意外,已成為全球最大二氧化碳排放國的中國大陸仍然是世界工廠。2015年大陸約13%的碳排放量來自為其他國家製造產品。在排放量同樣快速增長的印度,這個比率是20%。

The United States, for its part, remains the world’s leading importer of what the researchers call “embodied carbon.”

至於美國本身,則仍是研究人員稱為「實體碳排放」的世上最大進口國。

※說文解字看新聞

本文主要談歐美國家表面上成功降低了碳排放,其實是將碳汙染「外包」到其他國家。外包(outsourcing)與境外外包(offshoring),外界經常混用,實則outsourcing是指雇主聘請外部承包商,去做原本可由內部人員完成的工作,offshoring則是將業務外包到海外,通常是已開發國家的公司外包給開發程度較低國家的公司,理由不外乎成本較低、環境法規較寬鬆(lenient)、勞動法規較不嚴格(stringent)、稅務條件較優、接近原料產地等。

實體碳排放(embodied carbon)特指「物質」的碳足跡,如建造一棟大樓、製造一輛車或一部筆記型電腦的碳足跡,而「碳足跡」一詞含意較寬泛,可以指為大樓提供電力、開車、操作筆電的碳足跡。

 

Cow Bone Tossing. Horseback Wrestling.Let the Games Begin! 吉爾吉斯欲藉遊牧民族運動會 喚回歷史身分認同
作者/Neil MacFarquhar
譯/陳韋廷

The American team that played a brutal version of polo at the World Nomad Games does not expect the sport to get picked up by the Olympics any time soon.

在世界遊牧民族運動會中參加殘酷版馬球賽的美國隊,預期這項運動不會很快被挑選為奧運比賽項目。

Why not?

為何不會呢?

“We use a dead goat,” said Scott A. Zimmerman, a team co-captain.

美國隊共同隊長之一史考特.齊默曼說:「我們使用了一隻死羊。」

The game of kok-boru, with its headless goat carcass, was the main attraction at the weeklong international sports competition held this month in Cholpon-Ata, Kyrgyzstan.

這項為期一周的國際體育賽事本月在吉爾吉斯的喬爾蓬阿塔舉行,使用無頭山羊屍體的馬背叼羊比賽是主要的看點。

Other highlights included bone tossing, hunting with eagles and 17 types of wrestling, including bare-chested horseback wrestling, where the weaker competitor often clings desperately to the animal’s head as spectators roar in anticipation of him hitting the dirt.

其他看點包括擲骨、以老鷹狩獵以及17種各式摔跤,包括袒胸露背在馬背上摔跤,而在這種摔跤中,實力較弱的選手常拚命抱住馬頭,觀眾則大聲鼓噪,看準他會跌落地上。

The organizers hope to resurrect nomadic traditions, especially those of Central Asia, whose cultures were pushed toward extinction by decades of Soviet collectivization and then globalization.

籌辦者希望恢復遊牧傳統,尤其是中亞地區的游牧傳統,數十年的蘇聯集體化統治以及其後的全球化,已把當地文化推向滅絕。

While many top-flight athletes competed, qualifying for an event was easy: Basically anybody who signed up online could play. The bulk of the Czech Republic delegation, for example, was a group of male friends who fished around for an easy sport.

雖然有許多頂尖運動員參加比賽,參賽資格卻很容易取得,基本上,任何在網路上報名的人都可以參賽,例如捷克共和國代表團大部分成員是群男性朋友,他們四處打探以找個難度不高的運動項目。

They discovered ordo, or bone tossing, which involves eight players using a chunk of cow bone to dislodge 2-inch pieces of sheep bone from a large dirt circle. (It’s a lot harder than it sounds.) They could not, however, find the right bone bits in the Czech Republic with which to practice.

他們發現了ordo,也就是擲骨,即8名玩家使用一塊牛骨從一個大的土圈中將2英吋長的羊骨移出。(實際上比聽起來困難許多)不過,他們在捷克共和國卻找不到合適的骨頭來練習。

So how did they learn to play? They just thought about it, mostly, admitted the Czechs, who went home without any medals.

那麼他們是如何學會玩的呢? 未抱回任何獎牌的這些捷克人承認,他們只能全憑想像。

The outdoor events took place in two stunning venues — a hippodrome built for the Games on a high-altitude saline lake surrounded by the jagged peaks of the Tian Shan mountain range, and the vast meadows of a sweeping mountain gorge, where some 1,000 yurts were erected.

這些戶外項目在兩個令人嘆為觀止的場地舉行,一個是為了運動會而建在高海拔鹹水湖、由天山山脈參差山峰圍繞的競技場,另一個則是廣大高山峽谷中的遼闊草地,草地上並搭起了約1000個圓頂帳篷。

With archers clopping by on horses, and the smoky aroma of grilling meat, the meadow site evoked a nomadic encampment from a bygone era.

弓箭手騎著馬,加上烤肉散發出煙燻香氣,這片草地讓人想起了往昔的遊牧營地。

After 72 years spent under Communist domination — and more than two decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union — Kyrgyzstan and its neighbors are still trying to define themselves.

在共產黨統治下72年、蘇聯解體20多年後,吉爾吉斯及其鄰國仍在致力自我定位。

“We want to revive our historical identity,” said Kanat Amankulov, Kyrgyzstan’s minister for youth and sports.

吉爾吉斯青年暨體育部部長卡納特.阿曼庫洛夫說:「我們想要尋回我們的歷史身分。」

The Games also seek to create a kind of Brand Kyrgyzstan, attracting tourists to an impoverished, landlocked, predominantly Muslim nation of about 6 million people.

這項運動會還試圖打造一種吉爾吉斯品牌,以吸引遊客前來這個人口約600萬、絕大多數國民為穆斯林的貧困內陸國家。

The emphasis on nomadic traditions casts Kyrgyzstan as part of a grander Turkic civilization, and perhaps equally important, helps counter the growing strength here of the intolerant Wahhabi strain of Islam imported by clerics educated in Saudi Arabia.

強調遊牧傳統可將吉爾吉斯塑造成偉大突厥文明的一部分。而也許同樣重要的是,這有助於抗衡伊斯蘭瓦哈比教派日漸增長的勢力,這個比較偏執的教派是由在沙烏地阿拉伯受教育的神職人員所傳入。

 

訊息公告
 

美味新據點 大啖異國風情料理
源自馬來西亞的老字號品牌鴨皇閣,由新加坡商戴勝發引進台灣。店內必吃招牌料理「當歸烤鴨」外,店家也引進多道星馬料理,如星馬麥片蝦,吃法、風味皆相當獨特,令人回味無窮。

窺天象創商機 氣象科學跨域應用
氣象產業,是伴隨著科技進步崛起,也是因應時代需求而起的新創產業。15年前,氣象專家彭啟明,率先成立台灣第一家氣象公司「天氣風險管理開發公司」,15年後,他成功開拓出氣候經濟的新藍海,也以傳教士之姿,教人善用氣象資訊。

 

本電子報著作權均屬「聯合線上公司」或授權「聯合線上公司」使用之合法權利人所有,
禁止未經授權轉載或節錄。若對電子報內容有任何疑問或要求轉載授權,請【
聯絡我們】。
  免費電子報 | 著作權聲明 | 隱私權聲明 | 聯絡我們
udnfamily : news | video | money | stars | health | reading | mobile | data | NBA TAIWAN | blog | shopping